An in vitro model consisting of endothelium grown on collagen was used to investigate how mononuclear phagocytes traverse endothelium in the basal- to-apical direction (reverse transmigration), a process that mimics their migration across vascular and/or lymphatic endothelium during atherosclerosis and resolution of inflammation, respectively. Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) VIC7 against tissue factor (TF) inhibited reverse transmigration by 77%. Recombinant tissue factor fragments containing at least six amino acids C- terminal to residue 202 also strongly inhibited reverse transmigration. TF was absent on resting monocytes but was induced on these cells after initial apical-to-basal transendothelial migration. Two additional observations suggest that TF is involved in adhesion between mononuclear phagocytes and endothelium: (1) when monocytes were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate expression of TF before they were added to endothelium, VIC7 or soluble TF modestly inhibited their adhesion to the apical endothelial surface, each by about 35%; and (2) endothelial cells specifically bound to surfaces coated with TF fragments containing amino acids 202-219. This binding was blocked by anti-TF MoAb, suggesting that endothelial cells bear a receptor for TF. These data suggest that mononuclear phagocytes use TF, perhaps as an adhesive protein, to exit sites of inflammation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology