Role of x-ray-induced damage in biological micro-imaging

Richard A. London*, James E. Trebes, Chris J. Jacobsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

11 Scopus citations


Interactions of x rays with a sample are studied to determine the optimal wavelength, source energy, and exposure time for microscopy and holography. The optimal wavelength is influenced by two criteria: minimizing the required source energy and minimizing the absorbed dose and subsequent damage to the sample. The use of heavy element labels, such as colloidal gold, can significantly reduce the energy and dose. Limits to the exposure time due to natural motions, x-ray induced chemical damage, heat build-up, and hydrodynamic expansion are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
PublisherPubl by Int Soc for Optical Engineering
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)0819409146
StatePublished - Jan 1 1993
EventSoft X-Ray Microscopy - San Diego, CA, USA
Duration: Jul 19 1992Jul 21 1992


OtherSoft X-Ray Microscopy
CitySan Diego, CA, USA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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