Author Name Disambiguation (AND) is the task of resolving which author mentions in a bibliographic database refer to the same real-world person, and is a critical ingredient of digital library applications such as search and citation analysis. While many AND algorithms have been proposed, comparing them is difficult because they often employ distinct features and are evaluated on different datasets. In response to this challenge, we present S2AND, a unified benchmark dataset for AND on scholarly papers, as well as an open-source reference model implementation. Our dataset harmonizes eight disparate AND datasets into a uniform format, with a single rich feature set drawn from the Semantic Scholar (S2) database. Our evaluation suite for S2AND reports performance split by facets like publication year and number of papers, allowing researchers to track both global performance and measures of fairness across facet values. Our experiments show that because previous datasets tend to cover idiosyncratic and biased slices of the literature, algorithms trained to perform well on one on them may generalize poorly to others. By contrast, we show how training on a union of datasets in S2AND results in more robust models that perform well even on datasets unseen in training. The resulting AND model also substantially improves over the production algorithm in S2, reducing error by over 50% in terms of B3 F1. We release our unified dataset, model code, trained models, and evaluation suite to the research community.1.