Sacrococcygeal teratoma growth rate predicts adverse outcomes

Alan Coleman, Aimen Shaaban, Sundeep Keswani, Foong Yen Lim*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the growth rate of sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs) and determine its relationship to adverse outcomes. Methods A retrospective review of all pathology-confirmed isolated SCT patients evaluated with at least two documented ultrasounds and followed through hospital discharge between 2005 and 2012 was conducted. SCT growth rate was calculated as the difference between tumor volumes on a late- and early-gestation ultrasound divided by the difference in time. Outcomes were death, high-output cardiac failure (HOCF), hydrops, and preterm delivery. Student's t-test, receiver operator characteristics, Fisher's Exact test, and Pearson's correlation were performed. Results Of the 28 study subjects, there were 3 in utero demises and 2 neonatal deaths. Significantly faster SCT growth rates were seen in all adverse outcomes, including death (p < 0.0001), HOCF (p = 0.005), and preterm delivery (p = 0.009). There was a significant association with adverse outcomes at > 61 cm3/week (AUC = 0.87, p = 0.001, LR = 4.52). Furthermore, there was an even greater association with death at > 165 cm3/week (AUC = 0.93, p = 0.003, LR = 18.42). Growth rate was directly correlated with the percent of solid tumor (r = 0.60, p = 0.0008). Conclusion Faster SCT growth is associated with adverse outcomes. SCT growth rate determined by ultrasound is an effective prognostic indicator for adverse outcomes and easily applied to patient management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)985-989
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Adverse outcomes
  • Growth rate
  • Sacrococcygeal teratoma
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Surgery


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