Objectives To review our experience performing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) on patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with special attention paid to the risks of surgical complications and stone recurrence. Patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with or without urinary diversion are at increased risk of urolithiasis, surgical complications, and recurrent stone disease. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the 23 patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction who underwent PNL at our institution. Neurologic lesions included spina bifida, traumatic spinal cord injury, exstrophy/epispadias, neonatal meningitis, stroke, and spine chondrosarcoma. Bladder management included ileal conduit (n = 8), intermittent catheterization (n = 7), indwelling catheter (n = 7), and ureterosigmoidostomy (n = 1). Results We performed 100 procedures on 47 renal units (17 bilateral, 7 with recurrent stones). Urinary tract infection/colonization was seen in 21 of 23 patients, most of whom had more than one organism. The stone-free rate was 96%. Six patients required three or more procedures, each had a complete staghorn calculus. In an average of 36 months of follow-up, 10 patients (46%) had recurrent stone disease requiring intervention, and 5 patients (23%) underwent repeat PNL. The stone composition analysis revealed mainly infection-related stones. Conclusions PNL in patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction is safe and effective, with outcomes comparable to that of patients without such lesions. The complication rate is small but statistically significant. It is important to obtain adequate urine cultures, because renal pelvis and bladder culture data may differ and affect the outcome. Risk factors for recurrent stone disease include a high spinal cord lesion, indwelling urinary catheter, and ureterosigmoidostomy.
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