Saturation modified point spread functions in two-photon microscopy

Gianguido C. Cianci, Jianrong Wu, Keith M. Berland*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Excitation saturation can dramatically alter the effective imaging point spread function (PSF) in two-photon fluorescence microscopy. The saturation-modified PSF can have important implications for resolution in fluorescence imaging as saturation leads to both an increased fluorescence observation volume and an altered spatial profile for the PSF. We introduce here a computational approach to accurately quantify molecular excitation profiles that represent the modified imaging PSF in two-photon microscopy under the influence of excitation saturation. An analytical model that accounts for pulsed laser excitation is developed to calculate the influence of saturation at any location within the excitation laser profile. The overall saturation modified molecular excitation profiles are then evaluated numerically. Our results demonstrate that saturation can play an important role in two-photon fluorescence microscopy even with relatively modest excitation levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalMicroscopy Research and Technique
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2004


  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
  • Fluorescence microscopy
  • Saturation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Anatomy
  • Histology


Dive into the research topics of 'Saturation modified point spread functions in two-photon microscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this