Scalable Electrophysiology of Millimeter-Scale Animals with Electrode Devices

Kairu Dong, Wen Che Liu, Yuyan Su, Yidan Lyu, Hao Huang, Nenggan Zheng, John A. Rogers*, Kewang Nan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Millimeter-scale animals such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila larvae, zebrafish, and bees serve as powerful model organisms in the fields of neurobiology and neuroethology. Various methods exist for recording large-scale electrophysiological signals from these animals. Existing approaches often lack, however, real-time, uninterrupted investigations due to their rigid constructs, geometric constraints, and mechanical mismatch in integration with soft organisms. The recent research establishes the foundations for 3-dimensional flexible bioelectronic interfaces that incorporate microfabricated components and nanoelectronic function with adjustable mechanical properties and multidimensional variability, offering unique capabilities for chronic, stable interrogation and stimulation of millimeter-scale animals and miniature tissue constructs. This review summarizes the most advanced technologies for electrophysiological studies, based on methods of 3-dimensional flexible bioelectronics. A concluding section addresses the challenges of these devices in achieving freestanding, robust, and multifunctional biointerfaces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number0034
JournalBME Frontiers
StatePublished - Jan 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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