Secular dynamics of multiplanet systems: Implications for the formation of hot and warm Jupiters via high-eccentricity migration

Adrian S. Hamers*, Fabio Antonini, Yoram Lithwick, Hagai B. Perets, Simon F. Portegies Zwart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Scopus citations


Hot Jupiters (HJs) are Jupiter-like planets that reside very closely to their host star, within ~0.1 au. Their formation is not well understood. It is generally believed that they cannot have formed in situ, implying that some form of migration must have occurred after their initial formation. We study the production of HJs through secular evolution in multiplanet systems with three to five planets. In this variant of high-e migration, the eccentricity of the orbit of the innermost planet is excited on secular time-scales, triggering orbital migration due to tidal dissipation. We use a secular dynamics code and carry out a population synthesis study. We find that HJs are only produced if the viscous time-scale is short (≈0.014 yr). In contrast, in up to ≈0.3 of systems, the innermost planet is tidally disrupted. The orbital period distribution is peaked around 5 d, consistent with observations. The median HJ mass is 1MJ with amaximum of ≈2MJ, similar to observed HJs. Approximately 0.1 of the HJs have retrograde orbits with respect to the stellar spin. We do not find a significant population of warm Jupiters in our simulations, i.e. planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 au.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)688-701
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017



  • Gravitation
  • Planet-star interactions
  • Planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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