Surface-enhanced spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SESORS) is a label-free vibrational spectroscopy that has the potential for in vivo imaging. Previous SESORS experiments have been limited to acquiring spectra using SERS substrates implanted under the skin or from nanoparticles embedded in tissue. Here we present SESORS measurements of SERS active nanoparticles coated with a Raman reporter molecule (nanotags) acquired, for the first time, through bone. We demonstrate the ability of SESORS to measure spectra through various thicknesses (3-8 mm) of bone. We also show that diluted nanotag samples (∼2 × 1012 particles) can be detected through the bone. We apply a least-squares support vector machine analysis to demonstrate quantitative detection. It is anticipated that these through-bone SESORS measurements will enable real-time, non-invasive spectroscopic measurement of neurochemicals through the skull, as well as other biomedical applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry