Purpose: Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) show preclinical activity against hormone-sensitive breast cancer, but have not been tested in patients with early, treatment-naïve tumors. Patients and Methods: In a double-blind presurgical window trial of oral telapristone acetate (TPA) 12 mg daily versus placebo, 70 patients with early-stage breast cancer were randomized 1:1 (stratified by menopause) and treated for 2 to 10 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in Ki67 between diagnostic biopsy and surgical specimens. Gene expression pre- and posttherapy was assessed using RNA-sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis was performed to determine pathways enriched in response to TPA and placebo treatments. Results: Among 61 evaluable women (29 placebo and 32 telapristone acetate), 91% of tumors were ER/PR positive. The mean Ki67 declined by 5.5% in all women treated with telapristone acetate (P = 0.003), and by 4.2% in all women treated with placebo (P = 0.04). After menopausal stratification, the Ki67 decline remained significant in 22 telapristone acetate–treated premenopausal women (P = 0.03). Differential gene expression analysis showed no significant modulation overall. However, in a subset of tumors that demonstrated ≥30% relative reduction in Ki67 in the telapristone acetate group, genes related to cell-cycle progression, and those in the HER2 amplicon were significantly downregulated. In contrast, no significantly enriched pathways were identified in the placebo group. Conclusions: Patients treated with telapristone acetate whose Ki67 decreased by ≥30% demonstrated a selective antiproliferative signal, with a potentially important effect on HER2 amplicon genes. Evaluation of SPRMs in a neoadjuvant trial is merited, with attention to predictors of response to SPRM therapy, and inclusion of pre- and postmenopausal women.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research