Self-assembling cyclobis(paraquat-4,4'-biphenylene)

Françisco M. Raymo*, J. Fraser Stoddart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


The template-directed syntheses of the bipyridinium-based cyclophanes cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) and cyclobis(paraquat-4,4'-biphenylene) can be achieved by employing π-electron rich hydroquinone-based and ferrocene-based templates. By employing macrocyclic hydroquinone-based polyether templates, [2]catenanes and [3]catenanes, in which the bipyridinium-based cyclophane is mechanically-interlocked with the macrocyclic template(s), can be self-assembled in solution. The introduction of ester functions within these polyether chains of the macrocyclic templates provides the possibility of degrading the catenated structure via ester hydrolysis, thus, releasing the tetracationic cyclophane originally trapped within the catenane. The use of ferrocene-based templates provides a more efficient way to synthesise the bipyridinium-based cyclophane incorporating bitolyl spacers. In particular, the use of a 1,1'-disubstituted polyether ferrocene derivative provides the possibility of obtaining the tetracationic cyclophane, cyclobis(paraquat-4,4'-biphenylene) - accessible only in very low yields, without the use of a template - on a preparative scale.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-322
Number of pages10
JournalPure and Applied Chemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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