Self-efficacy contributes to individual differences in subjective improvements using CPAP

Kelly Glazer Baron*, Cynthia A. Berg, Laura A. Czajkowski, Timothy W. Smith, Heather E. Gunn, Christopher R. Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Purpose: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is variability in response to CPAP. This study examined individual differences in the daily associations between CPAP use and improvements in affect and sleepiness patients beginning CPAP. Methods: This observational repeated measures study involved 31 CPAP-naïve patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea at an academic sleep disorders center. Patients completed pre-treatment assessments of OSA knowledge, expectations for CPAP, and treatment self-efficacy as well as a repeated daily assessment of positive affect and negative affect, sleepiness/fatigue, and CPAP adherence for 10 days beginning the first week of treatment. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results: Nightly CPAP adherence predicted improvements in next-day positive affect, negative affect, and sleepiness/fatigue. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), treatment self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies were significant moderators of day-to-day improvement. Higher self-efficacy and lower AHI were associated with a stronger relationship between adherence and next-day improvements in positive affect and sleepiness. Very high-outcome expectances were associated with a weaker relationship between adherence and next-day improvements in sleepiness. Subjective sleepiness at pre-treatment did not give moderate improvements in next-day affect. Conclusions: Although CPAP use predicted daily improvements in affect and sleepiness for the majority of patients, patients with lower AHI, greater treatment self-efficacy, and moderate outcome expectancies reported stronger daily benefits from CPAP. For patients with high-treatment efficacy, adherence may be reinforced by a stronger link between adherence and daily improvements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)599-606
Number of pages8
JournalSleep and Breathing
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2011


  • CPAP adherence
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Clinical Neurology


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