Semi-Supervised Learning for Discrete Choice Models

Jie Yang*, Sergey Shebalov, DIego Klabjan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We introduce a semi-supervised discrete choice model with algorithmic approaches to estimate choice models when relatively few requests have actual preferences but the majority only have the choice sets. Two classic semi-supervised learning algorithms, the expectation maximization algorithm and the cluster-and-label algorithm, have been adapted to our choice modeling problem setting. We also develop two new algorithms based on the cluster-and-label algorithm. The new algorithms use the Bayesian Information Criterion to evaluate a clustering setting to automatically generate new clusters out of existing clusters and adjust the number of clusters. Two computational studies focusing on travel demand forecasting (i.e., a hotel booking case and a large-scale airline itinerary shopping case) are presented to evaluate the prediction accuracy and computational effort of the proposed algorithms. Algorithmic recommendations are rendered under various scenarios based on the hotel booking case while economic insights are derived based on the itinerary shopping case.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8574052
Pages (from-to)4145-4159
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2019


  • Semi-supervised learning
  • discrete choice models
  • travel demand forecasting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'Semi-Supervised Learning for Discrete Choice Models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this