SET domain-containing proteins belong to a group of enzymes named after a common domain that utilizes the cofactor S-adenosyl-. l-methionine (SAM) to achieve methylation of its substrates. Many SET domain-containing proteins have been shown to display catalytic activity towards particular lysine residues on histones, but emerging evidence also indicates that various non-histone proteins are specifically targeted by this clade of enzymes. Here, we summarize the most recent findings on the biological functions of the major families of SET domain-containing proteins catalyzing the methylation of histones 3 on lysines 4, 9, 27, and 36 (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, and H3K36) and histone 4 on lysine 20 (H4K20), as well as enzymes that have been reported to modify non-histone substrates.
- Histone lysine methylation
- Non-histone substrates
- SET domain-containing proteins
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology