Sex as a predictor of outcomes in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute stroke

M. S V Elkind, S. Prabhakaran, J. Pittman, W. Koroshetz, M. Jacoby, K. C. Johnston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between sex and functional outcomes after thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke in the context of a clinical trial. METHODS: We analyzed predictors of outcome among patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in the Glycine Antagonist in Neuroprotection for Patients with Acute Stroke Americas trial, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a putative neuroprotectant. RESULTS: Among 1,367 trial patients, 333 (24%) were treated with rtPA within 3 hours. The proportion of patients achieving good functional outcomes at 3 months differed by sex (47.5% of men vs 30.3% of women had Barthel Index [BI] ≥ 95; 32.2% of men vs 23.4% of women had modified Rankin Score [mRS] ≤ 1). NIH Stroke Score was similar by sex. Men were more likely to have good functional outcomes after adjusting for relevant covariates: for BI ≥ 95, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.28 (1.74 to 6.17); for mRS ≤ 1, adjusted OR 2.12 (1.11 to 4.03). Survival was worse among men: adjusted OR 0.45 (0.20 to 1.01). Other predictors of functional outcomes included age, stroke side, severity, complications, and infections. CONCLUSIONS: Among tissue plasminogen activator-treated patients in this clinical trial population, men were approximately three times as likely to have good functional outcomes, despite elevated mortality. Thrombolysis for stroke may not reverse the tendency for women to have worse functional outcomes after stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)842-848
Number of pages7
Issue number11
StatePublished - Mar 1 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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