Sex-Based Differences in Heart Failure: JACC Focus Seminar 7/7

Sadiya S. Khan, Lauren B. Beach, Clyde W. Yancy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Sex-based differences exist in risk, symptoms, and management of heart failure (HF). Women have a higher incidence of HF with preserved ejection fraction compared with men. This may be partially caused by the cardiovascular effects of estrogen and sex-specific risk factors (eg, adverse pregnancy outcomes, premature menopause). Key gaps exist in understanding of gender-based differences in HF, which is a distinctly different concept than sex-based differences. Although evidence-based therapies for HF are available, only limited data address sex-specific efficacy, and no data address gender-based efficacy. Persistent shortcomings in representation of women and gender minority participants in clinical trials limit an actionable database. A comprehensive roadmap to close the sex/gender-based gap in HF includes the following: 1) sex/gender-specific personalized prevention; 2) sex/gender-neutral implementation of evidence-based therapies; and 3) sex/gender-appropriate policy-level initiatives to spur research assessing sex/gender-specific causes of HF; enhance sex/gender-specific subgroup reporting; and promote community engagement of these important patient cohorts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1530-1541
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number15
StatePublished - Apr 19 2022


  • gender
  • heart failure
  • sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Sex-Based Differences in Heart Failure: JACC Focus Seminar 7/7'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this