Sex, dependency, and helping

Charles L. Gruder*, Thomas D. Cook

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Examined whether the difference in the helping behavior of males and females is due to the sex of the person giving help or the sex of the person receiving it. In an experiment with 52 male and 52 female undergraduates, dependency, sex of potential helper, and sex of dependent person were all varied factorially. An interaction of dependency and sex of the dependent person was obtained. Dependency made no difference in the help given to males, but females who were dependent received significantly more help than females who were not dependent, and marginally more help than dependent males. There were no effects due to the sex of the potential helper. Results indicate that sex differences in previous research were probably due to the sex of the person receiving help and not to the sex of the person giving it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-294
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 1971


  • dependency
  • helping behavior, sex &

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Psychology


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