Sex differences in the myocardial inflammatory response to acute injury

Ajay Kher, Meijing Wang, Ben M. Tsai, Jeffrey M. Pitcher, Evan S. Greenbaum, Ryan D. Nagy, Ketan M. Patel, G. Mathenge Wairiuko, Troy A. Markel, Daniel R. Meldrum*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

151 Scopus citations


Hemorrhage, trauma, ischemia/reperfusion, burn, and sepsis each lead to cardiac dysfunction. These insults lead to an inflammatory cascade, which plays an important role in this process. Gender has been shown to influence the inflammatory response, as well as outcomes after acute injury. The mechanisms by which gender affects the inflammatory response to and the outcome of acute injury are being actively investigated. We searched PubMed for articles in the English language by using the search words sex, gender, estrogen, testosterone, inflammation, acute injury, ischemia reperfusion, sepsis, trauma, and burns. These were used in various combinations. We read the abstracts of the relevant titles to confirm their relevance, and the full articles were then extracted. References from extracted articles were checked for any additional relevant articles. This review will examine evidence for gender differences in the outcome to acute injury, explain the myocardial inflammatory response to acute injury, and elucidate the various mechanisms by which gender affects the myocardial response to acute injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2005


  • Burns
  • Cytokines
  • Gender
  • Heart
  • Ischemia/reperfusion
  • Sepsis
  • Trauma-hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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