Shared and divergent phase separation and aggregation properties of brain-expressed ubiquilins

Julia E. Gerson*, Hunter Linton, Jiazheng Xing, Alexandra B. Sutter, Fayth S. Kakos, Jaimie Ryou, Nyjerus Liggans, Lisa M. Sharkey, Nathaniel Safren, Henry L. Paulson*, Magdalena I. Ivanova*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The brain-expressed ubiquilins, UBQLNs 1, 2 and 4, are highly homologous proteins that participate in multiple aspects of protein homeostasis and are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have established that UBQLN2 forms liquid-like condensates and accumulates in pathogenic aggregates, much like other proteins linked to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relative condensate and aggregate formation of the three brain-expressed ubiquilins is unknown. Here we report that the three ubiquilins differ in aggregation propensity, revealed by in-vitro experiments, cellular models, and analysis of human brain tissue. UBQLN4 displays heightened aggregation propensity over the other ubiquilins and, like amyloids, UBQLN4 forms ThioflavinT-positive fibrils in vitro. Measuring fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of puncta in cells, we report that all three ubiquilins undergo liquid–liquid phase transition. UBQLN2 and 4 exhibit slower recovery than UBQLN1, suggesting the condensates formed by these brain-expressed ubiquilins have different compositions and undergo distinct internal rearrangements. We conclude that while all brain-expressed ubiquilins exhibit self-association behavior manifesting as condensates, they follow distinct courses of phase-separation and aggregation. We suggest that this variability among ubiquilins along the continuum from liquid-like to solid informs both the normal ubiquitin-linked functions of ubiquilins and their accumulation and potential contribution to toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number287
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Shared and divergent phase separation and aggregation properties of brain-expressed ubiquilins'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this