Short chain fatty acids and their receptors: New metabolic targets

Brian T. Layden*, Anthony R. Angueira, Michael Brodsky, Vivek Durai, William L. Lowe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

107 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with aliphatic tails of different lengths, where short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) typically refer to carboxylic acids with aliphatic tails less than 6 carbons. In humans, SCFAs are derived in large part from fermentation of carbohydrates and proteins in the colon. By this process, the host is able to salvage energy from foods that cannot be processed normally in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. In humans, SCFAs are a minor nutrient source, especially for people on Western diets. Intriguingly, recent studies, as highlighted here, have described multiple beneficial roles of SCFAs in the regulation of metabolism. Further interest in SCFAs has emerged due to the association of gut flora composition with obesity and other metabolic states. The recent identification of receptors specifically activated by SCFAs has further increased interest in this area. These receptors, free fatty acid receptor-2 and -3 (FFAR2 and FFAR3), are expressed not only in the gut epithelium where SCFAs are produced, but also at multiple other sites considered to be metabolically important, such as adipose tissue and pancreatic islets. Because of these relatively recent findings, studies examining the role of these receptors, FFAR2 and FFAR3, and their ligands, SCFAs, in metabolism are emerging. This review provides a critical analysis of SCFAs, their recently identified receptors, and their connection to metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-140
Number of pages10
JournalTranslational Research
Volume161
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Fingerprint

Volatile Fatty Acids
Metabolism
Carboxylic Acids
Tail
Salvaging
Food
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Nutrition
Islets of Langerhans
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Fermentation
Nutrients
Adipose Tissue
Colon
Fatty Acids
Carbon
Epithelium
Obesity
Carbohydrates
Association reactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Layden, Brian T. ; Angueira, Anthony R. ; Brodsky, Michael ; Durai, Vivek ; Lowe, William L. / Short chain fatty acids and their receptors : New metabolic targets. In: Translational Research. 2013 ; Vol. 161, No. 3. pp. 131-140.
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Short chain fatty acids and their receptors : New metabolic targets. / Layden, Brian T.; Angueira, Anthony R.; Brodsky, Michael; Durai, Vivek; Lowe, William L.

In: Translational Research, Vol. 161, No. 3, 01.01.2013, p. 131-140.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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