Shoulder Dystocia

William Grobman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The frequency of shoulder dystocia in different reports has varied, ranging 0.2-3% of all vaginal deliveries. Once a shoulder dystocia occurs, even if all actions are appropriately taken, there is an increased frequency of complications, including third- or fourth-degree perineal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, and neonatal brachial plexus palsies. Health care providers have a poor ability to predict shoulder dystocia for most patients and there remains no commonly accepted model to accurately predict this obstetric emergency. Consequently, optimal management of shoulder dystocia requires appropriate management at the time it occurs. Multiple investigators have attempted to enhance care of shoulder dystocia by utilizing protocols and simulation training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-67
Number of pages9
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2013


  • Obstetric emergency
  • Shoulder dystocia
  • Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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