Signaling pathways are critical mediators of cellular processes in response to external stimuli. The signal transduction pathways consist of second messengers and protein kinases that sequentially phosphorylate proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression and cellular processes such as proliferation. While there are many studies characterizing the signaling pathways from yeast to mammalian cells in normal and disease states, relatively little is known in endometriosis. The information that is available thus far, however, points to defects in the mitogen-activated protein kinase, AKT and protein kinase A pathways in both the eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues/cells of endometriosis, resulting in altered gene expression, cytokine generation, and proliferation. Such uncontrolled signaling mechanisms most likely contribute to the establishment, survival, and proliferation of endometriotic lesions.
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase
- Protein kinase A
ASJC Scopus subject areas