Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia

Allison A. King*, Mark J. Rodeghier, Julie Ann Panepinto, John J. Strouse, James F. Casella, Charles T. Quinn, Michael M. Dowling, Sharada A. Sarnaik, Alexis A Thompson, Gerald M. Woods, Caterina P. Minniti, Rupa C. Redding-Lallinger, Melanie Kirby-Allen, Fenella J. Kirkham, Robert Mckinstry, Michael J. Noetzel, Desiree A. White, Janet K. Kwiatkowski, Thomas H. Howard, Karen A. Kalinyak & 7 others Baba Inusa, Melissa M. Rhodes, Mark E. Heiny, Ben Fuh, Jason M. Fixler, Mae O. Gordon, Michael R. Debaun

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child's academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students' mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5-15) with 52.2% male 17.5% of students were retained one grade level and 18.3% received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P < 0.001), and male gender (OR, 2.2; P = 0.001) were associated with grade retention; silent cerebral infarct (P = 0.31) and painful episodes (P = 0.60) were not. Among students with sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E188-E192
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Volume89
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

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Cerebral Infarction
Sickle Cell Anemia
Students
Odds Ratio
Special Education
Logistic Models
Cross-Sectional Studies
Parents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

Cite this

King, A. A., Rodeghier, M. J., Panepinto, J. A., Strouse, J. J., Casella, J. F., Quinn, C. T., ... Debaun, M. R. (2014). Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia. American Journal of Hematology, 89(10), E188-E192. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23805
King, Allison A. ; Rodeghier, Mark J. ; Panepinto, Julie Ann ; Strouse, John J. ; Casella, James F. ; Quinn, Charles T. ; Dowling, Michael M. ; Sarnaik, Sharada A. ; Thompson, Alexis A ; Woods, Gerald M. ; Minniti, Caterina P. ; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C. ; Kirby-Allen, Melanie ; Kirkham, Fenella J. ; Mckinstry, Robert ; Noetzel, Michael J. ; White, Desiree A. ; Kwiatkowski, Janet K. ; Howard, Thomas H. ; Kalinyak, Karen A. ; Inusa, Baba ; Rhodes, Melissa M. ; Heiny, Mark E. ; Fuh, Ben ; Fixler, Jason M. ; Gordon, Mae O. ; Debaun, Michael R. / Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia. In: American Journal of Hematology. 2014 ; Vol. 89, No. 10. pp. E188-E192.
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abstract = "Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child's academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students' mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5-15) with 52.2{\%} male 17.5{\%} of students were retained one grade level and 18.3{\%} received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P < 0.001), and male gender (OR, 2.2; P = 0.001) were associated with grade retention; silent cerebral infarct (P = 0.31) and painful episodes (P = 0.60) were not. Among students with sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia.",
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King, AA, Rodeghier, MJ, Panepinto, JA, Strouse, JJ, Casella, JF, Quinn, CT, Dowling, MM, Sarnaik, SA, Thompson, AA, Woods, GM, Minniti, CP, Redding-Lallinger, RC, Kirby-Allen, M, Kirkham, FJ, Mckinstry, R, Noetzel, MJ, White, DA, Kwiatkowski, JK, Howard, TH, Kalinyak, KA, Inusa, B, Rhodes, MM, Heiny, ME, Fuh, B, Fixler, JM, Gordon, MO & Debaun, MR 2014, 'Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia', American Journal of Hematology, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. E188-E192. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23805

Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia. / King, Allison A.; Rodeghier, Mark J.; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Strouse, John J.; Casella, James F.; Quinn, Charles T.; Dowling, Michael M.; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Thompson, Alexis A; Woods, Gerald M.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C.; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Mckinstry, Robert; Noetzel, Michael J.; White, Desiree A.; Kwiatkowski, Janet K.; Howard, Thomas H.; Kalinyak, Karen A.; Inusa, Baba; Rhodes, Melissa M.; Heiny, Mark E.; Fuh, Ben; Fixler, Jason M.; Gordon, Mae O.; Debaun, Michael R.

In: American Journal of Hematology, Vol. 89, No. 10, 01.10.2014, p. E188-E192.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia

AU - King, Allison A.

AU - Rodeghier, Mark J.

AU - Panepinto, Julie Ann

AU - Strouse, John J.

AU - Casella, James F.

AU - Quinn, Charles T.

AU - Dowling, Michael M.

AU - Sarnaik, Sharada A.

AU - Thompson, Alexis A

AU - Woods, Gerald M.

AU - Minniti, Caterina P.

AU - Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C.

AU - Kirby-Allen, Melanie

AU - Kirkham, Fenella J.

AU - Mckinstry, Robert

AU - Noetzel, Michael J.

AU - White, Desiree A.

AU - Kwiatkowski, Janet K.

AU - Howard, Thomas H.

AU - Kalinyak, Karen A.

AU - Inusa, Baba

AU - Rhodes, Melissa M.

AU - Heiny, Mark E.

AU - Fuh, Ben

AU - Fixler, Jason M.

AU - Gordon, Mae O.

AU - Debaun, Michael R.

PY - 2014/10/1

Y1 - 2014/10/1

N2 - Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child's academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students' mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5-15) with 52.2% male 17.5% of students were retained one grade level and 18.3% received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P < 0.001), and male gender (OR, 2.2; P = 0.001) were associated with grade retention; silent cerebral infarct (P = 0.31) and painful episodes (P = 0.60) were not. Among students with sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia.

AB - Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child's academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students' mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5-15) with 52.2% male 17.5% of students were retained one grade level and 18.3% received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P < 0.001), and male gender (OR, 2.2; P = 0.001) were associated with grade retention; silent cerebral infarct (P = 0.31) and painful episodes (P = 0.60) were not. Among students with sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia.

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King AA, Rodeghier MJ, Panepinto JA, Strouse JJ, Casella JF, Quinn CT et al. Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia. American Journal of Hematology. 2014 Oct 1;89(10):E188-E192. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23805