Simulation and fabrication of two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals using barium titanate thin films

Tai Lin Pao, Liu Zhifu, Bruce W. Wessels

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

7 Scopus citations


Photonic crystal (PhC) can potentially result in enhanced optical properties around critical points in the photonic band gap. Of interest here are enhanced nonlinear optical effects. In this study, one and two dimensional nonlinear PhC were designed and fabricated using barium titanium oxide (BTO) thin films as the active medium. Nonlinear PhC made with barium titanate thin films potentially provide integrated devices with the advantages of wide tunability and high stability. Films 500 nm thick deposited on MgO substrates were utilized. Two dimensional PhC structures were defined by focused ion beams (FIB). Before patterning, a thin metal layer was deposited on the barium titanate layers in order to improve the conductivity of the samples. After writing the patterns, cylindrical air holes were generated in the thin film layers. The PhC lattice constant and the hole radius were selected in sub-micron region in order to satisfy the requirement of wave resonance. The PhCs with sub-micron features were characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and near field optical microscopy (NSOM). The transmission spectra of the PhC waveguides were calculated with a continuous wide band source that covered 1 to 2 micron wavelength. Simulations of the transmission characteristics were performed using the two dimensional finite difference time domain method (FDTD).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings - Three-Dimensional Nano- and Microphotonics
Number of pages7
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007
EventThree-Dimensional Nano- and Microphotonics - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Apr 9 2007Apr 13 2007

Publication series

NameMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0272-9172


OtherThree-Dimensional Nano- and Microphotonics
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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