Background: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) developed Milestones that provide a framework for residents' assessment. However, Milestones do not provide a description for how programs should perform assessments. Objectives: We evaluated graduating residents' status epilepticus (SE) identification and management skills and how they correlate with ACGME Milestones reported for epilepsy and management/treatment by their program's clinical competency committee (CCC). Methods: We performed a cohort study of graduating neurology residents from 3 academic medical centers in Chicago in 2018. We evaluated residents' skills identifying and managing SE using a simulation-based assessment (26-item checklist). Simulation-based assessment scores were compared to experience (number of SE cases each resident reported identifying and managing during residency), self-confidence in identifying and managing these cases, and their end of residency Milestones assigned by a CCC based on end-of-rotation evaluations. Results: Sixteen of 21 (76%) eligible residents participated in the study. Average SE checklist score was 15.6 of 26 checklist items correct (60%, SD 12.2%). There were no significant correlations between resident checklist performance and experience or self-confidence. The average participant's level of Milestone for epilepsy and management/treatment was high at 4.3 of 5 (SD 0.4) and 4.4 of 5 (SD 0.4), respectively. There were no significant associations between checklist skills performance and level of Milestone assigned. Conclusions: Simulated SE skills performance of graduating neurology residents was poor. Our study suggests that end-of-rotation evaluations alone are inadequate for assigning Milestones for high-stakes clinical skills such as identification and management of SE.
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