Simultaneous computer mapping to facilitate intraoperative localization of accessory pathways in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Jeffrey B. Kramer, Peter B. Corr, James Lewis Cox, Francis X. Witkowski, Michael E. Cain*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Sixteen patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent simultaneous intraoperative computer mapping from multiple sites before surgical division of the accessory pathways. A 16-bipolar electrode band was positioned around the atrioventricular groove. Ventricular epicardial electrograms from single beats were recorded simultaneously during atrial pacing, resulting in maximal preexcitation, and atrial electrograms were recorded during orthodromic supraventricular tachycardia. Four-level transmural plunge needle electrodes were used concomitantly in 3 patients. Electrograms were processed separately using a guarded signal conditioner that isolates, amplifies, filters and analog-to-digitally converts synchronously at 2 kHz with 12-bit accuracy. Digital data were transmitted by fiber optics to a high-density digital recorder and processed with a computer having rapid interactive graphics. Results in the 16 patients revealed 20 distinct Kent bundles. Two patients had only nosustained supraventricular tachycardia induced intraoperatively and 1 patient manifested intermittent anterograge ventricular preexcitation. Multiple pathways were identified in 4 patients. This simultaneous multiple electrode mapping procedure facilitates intraoperative mapping by requiring only a single beat for analysis of anterograde and retrograde activation times, decreases cardiac manipulation during mapping and obviates the need for cardiopulmonary bypass, and permits analysis of transmural activation patterns. This approach decreases markedly the time required for mapping and permits accurate study of nonsustained arrhythmias as well as rapid identification of multiple accessory pathways.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)571-576
Number of pages6
JournalThe American journal of cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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