Single-agent laromustine, a novel alkylating agent, has significant activity in older patients with previously untreated poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia

Gary J. Schiller, Susan M. O'Brien, Arnaud Pigneux, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Norbert Vey, Jonathan Kell, Scott Solomon, Robert K. Stuart, Verena Karsten, Ann L. Cahill, Maher X. Albitar, Francis J. Giles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: An international phase II study of laromustine (VNP40101M), a sulfonylhydrazine alkylating agent, was conducted in patients age 60 years or older with previously untreated poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods: Laromustine 600 mg/m2 was administered as a single 60-minute intravenous infusion. Patients were age 70 years or older or 60 years or older with at least one additional risk factor - unfavorable AML karyotype, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 2, and/or cardiac, pulmonary, or hepatic comorbidities. Results: Eighty-five patients (median age, 72 years; range, 60 to 87 years) were treated. Poor-risk features included age 70 years or older, 78%; adverse karyotype, 47%; PS of 2, 41%; pulmonary disease, 77%; cardiac disease, 73%; and hepatic disease, 3%. Ninety-six percent of patients had at least two risk factors, and 39% had at least four risk factors. The overall response rate (ORR) was 32%, with 20 patients (23%) achieving complete response (CR) and seven (8%) achieving CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). ORR was 20% in patients with adverse cytogenetics; 32% in those age 70 years or older; 32% in those with PS of 2; 32% in patients with baseline pulmonary dysfunction; 34% in patients with baseline cardiac dysfunction; and 27% in 33 patients with at least four risk factors. Twelve (14%) patients died within 30 days of receiving laromustine therapy. Median overall survival was 3.2 months, with a 1-year survival of 21%; the median duration of survival for those who achieved CR/CRp was 12.4 months, with a 1-year survival of 52%. Conclusion: Laromustine has significant single-agent activity in elderly patients with poor-risk AML. Adverse events are predominantly myelosuppressive or respiratory. Response rates are consistent across a spectrum of poor-risk features.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-821
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume28
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 10 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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