Purpose: An international phase II study of laromustine (VNP40101M), a sulfonylhydrazine alkylating agent, was conducted in patients age 60 years or older with previously untreated poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods: Laromustine 600 mg/m2 was administered as a single 60-minute intravenous infusion. Patients were age 70 years or older or 60 years or older with at least one additional risk factor - unfavorable AML karyotype, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 2, and/or cardiac, pulmonary, or hepatic comorbidities. Results: Eighty-five patients (median age, 72 years; range, 60 to 87 years) were treated. Poor-risk features included age 70 years or older, 78%; adverse karyotype, 47%; PS of 2, 41%; pulmonary disease, 77%; cardiac disease, 73%; and hepatic disease, 3%. Ninety-six percent of patients had at least two risk factors, and 39% had at least four risk factors. The overall response rate (ORR) was 32%, with 20 patients (23%) achieving complete response (CR) and seven (8%) achieving CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). ORR was 20% in patients with adverse cytogenetics; 32% in those age 70 years or older; 32% in those with PS of 2; 32% in patients with baseline pulmonary dysfunction; 34% in patients with baseline cardiac dysfunction; and 27% in 33 patients with at least four risk factors. Twelve (14%) patients died within 30 days of receiving laromustine therapy. Median overall survival was 3.2 months, with a 1-year survival of 21%; the median duration of survival for those who achieved CR/CRp was 12.4 months, with a 1-year survival of 52%. Conclusion: Laromustine has significant single-agent activity in elderly patients with poor-risk AML. Adverse events are predominantly myelosuppressive or respiratory. Response rates are consistent across a spectrum of poor-risk features.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research