Single agents have demonstrated activity in relapsed and refractory (R/R) peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Their benefit relative to combination chemotherapy remains undefined. Patients with histologically confirmed PTCL were enrolled in the Comprehensive Oncology Measures for Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Treatment (COMPLETE) registry. Eligibility criteria included those with R/R disease who had received one prior systemic therapy and were given either a single agent or combination chemotherapy as first retreatment. Treatment results for those with R/R disease who received single agents were compared to those who received combination chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was best response to retreatment. Fifty-seven patients met eligibility criteria. At first retreatment, 46% (26/57) received combination therapy and 54.5% (31/57) received single agents. At median follow up of 2 years, a trend was seen towards increased complete response rate for single agents versus combination therapy (41% vs 19%; P =.02). There was also increased median overall survival (38.9 vs 17.1 months; P =.02) and progression-free survival (11.2 vs 6.7 months; P =.02). More patients receiving single agents received hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (25.8% vs 7.7%, P =.07). Adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred more frequently in those receiving combination therapy, although this was not statistically significant. The data confirm the unmet need for better treatment in R/R PTCL. Despite a small sample, the analysis shows greater response and survival in those treated with single agents as first retreatment in R/R setting, while maintaining the ability to achieve transplantation. Large, randomized trials are needed to identify the best strategy.
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