Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftibuten (SCH 39720) in infants and children

G. L. Kearns, M. D. Reed, R. F. Jacobs*, M. Ardite, R. D. Yogev, J. L. Blumer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ceftibuten (CFB), a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin for oral administration, possesses potent activity in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and certain gram-positive pathogens frequently encountered in pediatric patients. Its antimicrobial spectrum and dosage formulation suggest a use for CFB in the treatment of otitis media and upper and lower respiratory and urinary tract infections in infants and children. To assess the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CFB in pediatric patients, we completed a multicenter investigation of 49 children (26 females) between the ages of 6 months and 17 years who had normal hepatic and renal functions and no evidence of chronic disease. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from repeated blood samples (n = 12) and, when possible, quantitative urine collections (n = 7) obtained over a 12- to 24-h period following a single oral CFB dose of either 4.5 or 9.0 mg/kg of body weight. CFB was quantitated from plasma and urine samples by using a sensitive, microanalytical high-pressure liquid chromatography method. The drug was rapidly absorbed (mean time to maximum concentration in serum = 140 min) and produced apparent peak concentrations in plasma (C(max)) ranging from 5.0 to 19.0 mg/liter. Average CFB pharmacokinetic parameters (±standard deviations) were as follows: apparent elimination half-life, 2.0 ± 0.5 h; mean residence time, 3.9 ± 1.1 h; apparent steady-state volume of distribution, 0.4 ± 0.2 liter/kg; and apparent total plasma clearance (CL/F), 2.5 ± 0.9 ml/min/kg. No significant differences in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters were observed between the two dosing groups. Significant (P < 0.05) negative correlations were found between patient age and CFB elimination half-life and CL/F and between the estimated creatinine clearance and renal clearance and CL/F. Apparent age dependence of CFB disposition was also reflected by a greater CL/F in children from 0.5 to ≤5 years of age (3.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/kg) than in children >10 years of age (2.0 ± 0.6 ml/min/kg; P < 0.005). The increased CL/F for CFB (3.0 ± 0.5 ml/min/kg) was corroborated by a validation study performed with 11 infants (6 to 26 months) who were given a single 9.0-mg/kg oral dose. Comparison of renal clearance (1.0 ± 0.5 ml/min/kg) with CL/F for 19 subjects suggested that appreciable nonrenal clearance (1.3 ± 0.6 ml/min/kg) of CFB occurred in children, a finding different from preliminary data for adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2078-2084
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume35
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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