Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) maps the electronic structure of complex systems on a femtosecond time scale. While analogous to multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, 2D optical spectroscopy differs significantly in its implementation. Yet, 2D Fourier spectroscopies still require point-by-point sampling of the time delay between two pulses responsible for creating quantum coherence among states. Unlike NMR, achieving the requisite phase stability at optical frequencies between these pulse pairs remains experimentally challenging. Nonetheless, 2D optical spectroscopy has been successfully demonstrated by combining passive and active phase stabilization along with precise control of optical delays and long-term temperature stability, although the widespread adoption of 2D ES has been significantly hampered by these technical challenges. Here, we exploit an analogy to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate a single-shot method capable of acquiring the entire 2D spectrum in a single laser shot using only conventional optics. Unlike point-by-point sampling protocols typically used to record 2D spectra, this method, which we call GRadient-Assisted Photon Echo (GRAPE) spectroscopy, largely eliminates phase errors while reducing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. By incorporating a spatiotemporal encoding of the nonlinear polarization along the excitation frequency axis of the 2D spectrum, GRAPE spectroscopy achieves no loss in signal while simultaneously reducing overall noise. Here, we describe the principles of GRAPE spectroscopy and discuss associated experimental considerations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry