Skin-Integrated Vibrohaptic Interfaces for Virtual and Augmented Reality

Yei Hwan Jung, Jae Hwan Kim, John A. Rogers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Haptic technology involves the use of electrical or mechanical means to stimulate afferent nerves or mechanoreceptors in the skin as the basis for creating sensations of physical touch that can qualitatively expand virtual or augmented reality experiences beyond those supported by visual and auditory cues alone. An emerging direction in this field involves the development of platforms that provide spatiotemporal patterns of sensation to the skin across not only the fingertips, but to any and all regions of the body, using thin, skin-like technologies that impose negligible physical burden on the user. This review highlights the biological basis for skin interfaces of this type and the latest advances in haptics in the context of this ambitious goal, including electrotactile and vibrotactile devices that support perceptions of touch in form factors that have potential as skin-integrated interfaces. The content includes a discussion of schemes for integrating these stimulators into programmable arrays, with an emphasis on scalable materials and designs that have the potential to support soft interfaces across large areas of the skin. A concluding section summarizes the potential consequences of successful research efforts in this area, along with key multidisciplinary challenges and associated research opportunities in materials science and engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2008805
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number39
StatePublished - Sep 23 2021


  • electrotactile devices
  • flexible electronics
  • haptic interfaces
  • vibrotactile devices
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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