Skin-Interfaced Microfluidic Systems that Combine Hard and Soft Materials for Demanding Applications in Sweat Capture and Analysis

Jungil Choi, Shulin Chen, Yujun Deng, Yeguang Xue, Jonathan T. Reeder, Daniel Franklin, Yong Suk Oh, Jeffrey B. Model, Alexander J. Aranyosi, Stephen P. Lee, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Yonggang Huang, John A. Rogers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Eccrine sweat contains a rich blend of electrolytes, metabolites, proteins, metal ions, and other biomarkers. Changes in the concentrations of these chemical species can indicate alterations in hydration status and they can also reflect health conditions such as cystic fibrosis, schizophrenia, and depression. Recent advances in soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems enable real-time measurement of local sweat loss and sweat biomarker concentrations, with a wide range of applications in healthcare. Uses in certain contexts involve, however, physical impacts on the body that can dynamically deform these platforms, with adverse effects on measurement reliability. The work presented here overcomes this limitation through the use of microfluidic structures constructed in relatively high modulus polymers, and designed in geometries that offer soft, system level mechanics when embedded low modulus elastomers. Analytical models and finite element analysis quantitatively define the relevant mechanics of these systems, and serve as the basis for layouts optimized to allow robust operation in demanding, rugged scenarios such as those encountered in football, while preserving mechanical stretchability for comfortable, water-tight bonding to the skin. Benchtop testing and on-body field studies of measurements of sweat loss and chloride concentration under imposed mechanical stresses and impacts demonstrate the key features of these platforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2000722
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 17 2021


  • finite element analysis
  • material engineering
  • microfludic devices
  • sweat analysis
  • wearable devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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