Small-for-Gestational Age Birth Confers Similar Educational Performance through Middle School

Karna Murthy*, Krzysztof Karbownik, Craig Garfield, Gustave H Falciglia, Jeffrey Roth, David N Figlio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To estimate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and educational performance on standardized testing and disability prevalence in elementary and middle school. Study design: Through linked birth certificates and school records, surviving infants born at 23-41 weeks of gestation who entered Florida's public schools 1998-2009 were identified. Twenty-three SGA definitions (3rd-25th percentile) were derived. Outcomes were scores on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and students' disability classification in grades 3 through 8. A “sibling cohort” subsample included families with at least 2 siblings from the same mother in the study period. Multivariable models estimated independent relationships between SGA and outcomes. Results: Birth certificates for 80.2% of singleton infants were matched to Florida public school records (N = 1 254 390). Unadjusted mean FCAT scores were 0.236 SD lower among <10th percentile SGA infants compared with non-SGA infants; this difference declined to −0.086 SD after adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. When siblings discordant in SGA status were compared within individual families, the association declined to −0.056 SD. For SGA <10th percentile infants, the observed prevalence of school-age disability was 15.0%, 7.7%, and 6.3% for unadjusted, demographics-adjusted, and sibling analyses, respectively. No inflection or discontinuity was detected across SGA definitions from 3rd to 25th percentile in either outcome, and the associations were qualitatively similar. Conclusions: The associations between SGA birth and students' standardized test scores and well-being were quantitatively small but persisted through elementary and middle school. The observed deficits were largely mitigated by demographic and familial factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-165.e7
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Volume212
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

Fingerprint

Gestational Age
Parturition
Siblings
Birth Certificates
Mothers
Demography
Small for Gestational Age Infant
Students
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • SGA
  • child development
  • longitudinal data
  • test scores

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

@article{6d48274c1bf7460ba21415fa207b4181,
title = "Small-for-Gestational Age Birth Confers Similar Educational Performance through Middle School",
abstract = "Objective: To estimate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and educational performance on standardized testing and disability prevalence in elementary and middle school. Study design: Through linked birth certificates and school records, surviving infants born at 23-41 weeks of gestation who entered Florida's public schools 1998-2009 were identified. Twenty-three SGA definitions (3rd-25th percentile) were derived. Outcomes were scores on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and students' disability classification in grades 3 through 8. A “sibling cohort” subsample included families with at least 2 siblings from the same mother in the study period. Multivariable models estimated independent relationships between SGA and outcomes. Results: Birth certificates for 80.2{\%} of singleton infants were matched to Florida public school records (N = 1 254 390). Unadjusted mean FCAT scores were 0.236 SD lower among <10th percentile SGA infants compared with non-SGA infants; this difference declined to −0.086 SD after adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. When siblings discordant in SGA status were compared within individual families, the association declined to −0.056 SD. For SGA <10th percentile infants, the observed prevalence of school-age disability was 15.0{\%}, 7.7{\%}, and 6.3{\%} for unadjusted, demographics-adjusted, and sibling analyses, respectively. No inflection or discontinuity was detected across SGA definitions from 3rd to 25th percentile in either outcome, and the associations were qualitatively similar. Conclusions: The associations between SGA birth and students' standardized test scores and well-being were quantitatively small but persisted through elementary and middle school. The observed deficits were largely mitigated by demographic and familial factors.",
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Small-for-Gestational Age Birth Confers Similar Educational Performance through Middle School. / Murthy, Karna; Karbownik, Krzysztof; Garfield, Craig; Falciglia, Gustave H; Roth, Jeffrey; Figlio, David N.

In: Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 212, 01.09.2019, p. 159-165.e7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Small-for-Gestational Age Birth Confers Similar Educational Performance through Middle School

AU - Murthy, Karna

AU - Karbownik, Krzysztof

AU - Garfield, Craig

AU - Falciglia, Gustave H

AU - Roth, Jeffrey

AU - Figlio, David N

PY - 2019/9/1

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N2 - Objective: To estimate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and educational performance on standardized testing and disability prevalence in elementary and middle school. Study design: Through linked birth certificates and school records, surviving infants born at 23-41 weeks of gestation who entered Florida's public schools 1998-2009 were identified. Twenty-three SGA definitions (3rd-25th percentile) were derived. Outcomes were scores on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and students' disability classification in grades 3 through 8. A “sibling cohort” subsample included families with at least 2 siblings from the same mother in the study period. Multivariable models estimated independent relationships between SGA and outcomes. Results: Birth certificates for 80.2% of singleton infants were matched to Florida public school records (N = 1 254 390). Unadjusted mean FCAT scores were 0.236 SD lower among <10th percentile SGA infants compared with non-SGA infants; this difference declined to −0.086 SD after adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. When siblings discordant in SGA status were compared within individual families, the association declined to −0.056 SD. For SGA <10th percentile infants, the observed prevalence of school-age disability was 15.0%, 7.7%, and 6.3% for unadjusted, demographics-adjusted, and sibling analyses, respectively. No inflection or discontinuity was detected across SGA definitions from 3rd to 25th percentile in either outcome, and the associations were qualitatively similar. Conclusions: The associations between SGA birth and students' standardized test scores and well-being were quantitatively small but persisted through elementary and middle school. The observed deficits were largely mitigated by demographic and familial factors.

AB - Objective: To estimate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and educational performance on standardized testing and disability prevalence in elementary and middle school. Study design: Through linked birth certificates and school records, surviving infants born at 23-41 weeks of gestation who entered Florida's public schools 1998-2009 were identified. Twenty-three SGA definitions (3rd-25th percentile) were derived. Outcomes were scores on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and students' disability classification in grades 3 through 8. A “sibling cohort” subsample included families with at least 2 siblings from the same mother in the study period. Multivariable models estimated independent relationships between SGA and outcomes. Results: Birth certificates for 80.2% of singleton infants were matched to Florida public school records (N = 1 254 390). Unadjusted mean FCAT scores were 0.236 SD lower among <10th percentile SGA infants compared with non-SGA infants; this difference declined to −0.086 SD after adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. When siblings discordant in SGA status were compared within individual families, the association declined to −0.056 SD. For SGA <10th percentile infants, the observed prevalence of school-age disability was 15.0%, 7.7%, and 6.3% for unadjusted, demographics-adjusted, and sibling analyses, respectively. No inflection or discontinuity was detected across SGA definitions from 3rd to 25th percentile in either outcome, and the associations were qualitatively similar. Conclusions: The associations between SGA birth and students' standardized test scores and well-being were quantitatively small but persisted through elementary and middle school. The observed deficits were largely mitigated by demographic and familial factors.

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KW - longitudinal data

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