An unanticipated and tremendous amount of the noncoding sequence of the human genome is transcribed. Long noncoding RNAs (IncRNAs) constitute a significant fraction of non-protein-coding transcripts; however, their functions remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that deletions of a small noncoding differentially methylated region at 16q24.1, including IncRNA genes, cause a lethal lung developmental disorder, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV), with parent-of-origin effects. We identify overlapping deletions 250 kb upstream of FOXF1 in nine patients with ACD/MPV that arose de novo specifically on the maternally inherited chromosome and delete lung-specific IncRNAgenes. These deletions define a distant cis-regulatory region that harbors, besides lncRNAgenes, also a differentially methylated CpGisland, binds GLI2 depending on the methylation status of this CpG island, and physically interacts with and up-regulates the FOXF1 promoter. Wesuggest that lung-transcribed 16q24.1 IncRNAs may contribute to long-range regulation of FOXF1 by GLI2 and other transcription factors. Perturbation of IncRNA-mediated chromatin interactions may, in general, be responsible for position effect phenomena and potentially cause many disorders of human development.
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