A 2005 study by the American Society of Civil Engineers showed that six billion gallons of clean, treated drinking water disappears every day, mostly due to old, leaky pipes and mains. The amount is enough to serve the population of California. The approximate dollar cost, given varied water rates in different U.S. regions, is $12.5 million - $92 million. Moreover, leaking systems have wasted not only dollars but also priceless natural and energy resources for future generations. A current research project funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency - Midwest Technology Assistance Center is designed to improve water supply infrastructure via a highly-advanced, cost-efficient monitoring system. A research group led by the Illinois State Water Survey, in collaboration with the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Northwestern University, has been developing a "Smart Pipe" prototype: a multi-sensor array to monitor water flow and quality using state-of-the-art nanotechnology. Each sensor unit in the array will include sensors for pressure, flow velocity and temperature on a 2.5mm by 2.5 mm silicon skin. The Smart Pipe will be equipped with a wireless processor and antenna to transfer monitoring data via commercial wireless communication systems.