Social factors, psychopathology, and maternal smoking during pregnancy

Stephen E. Gilman, Joshua Breslau, S. V. Subramanian, Brian Hitsman, Karestan C. Koenen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


We investigated the relative importance of sociodemographic factors and psychiatric disorders for smoking among 453 pregnant women in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Women with less than a high school education and those with current-year nicotine dependence had the highest risk of smoking (90.5%), compared with women with a college degree and without nicotine dependence (3.9%). More effective and accessible interventions for nicotine dependence among pregnant smokers are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)448-453
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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