Social hierarchy and depression: The role of emotion suppression

Carrie A. Langner*, Elissa S. Epel, Karen A. Matthews, Judith T. Moskowitz, Nancy E. Adler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter etal., 1991). Much as in Study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)417-436
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied
Volume146
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • Psychology(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Social hierarchy and depression: The role of emotion suppression'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this