Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

P. Kotler*, G. Zaltman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1415 Scopus citations


This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-12
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Marketing
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1971

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Marketing


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