Sociocultural Factors Influencing Caregiver Appraisals Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Angelle M. Sander*, Robin A. Hanks, Phillip A. Ianni, Nicholas R. Boileau, Anna L. Kratz, Elizabeth A. Hahn, David S. Tulsky, Noelle E. Carlozzi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To investigate the association of the sociocultural variables race/ethnicity, education, and poverty level to caregivers’ positive and negative appraisals following traumatic brain injury. Design: Survey. Setting: Community. Participants: Caregivers (N=344; 216 white; 69 black; 39 Hispanic) of persons with complicated mild to severe TBI at least 1-year postinjury. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Modified Caregiver Appraisal Scale (M-CAS); Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Results: Black caregivers reported lower levels of perceived burden on both the M-CAS and the ZBI. Black and Hispanic caregivers reported more traditional caregiver ideology (caregiving as a responsibility) than did whites. Greater poverty was associated with higher burden on the M-CAS, lower caregiver satisfaction, and less mastery. Higher education was associated with higher burden on the ZBI and with lower caregiver mastery. Conclusions: Treatment professionals should be culturally sensitive to the different perspectives that caregivers may have based on sociocultural factors. Sociocultural factors should be considered in research investigating caregiver outcomes, including appraisals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S58-S64
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • Brain injuries, traumatic
  • Caregivers
  • Cultural competency
  • Rehabilitation
  • Surveys and questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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