Sociodemographic correlates of cognition in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

Annette L. Fitzpatrick*, Stephen R. Rapp, José Luchsinger, Felicia Hill-Briggs, Alvaro Alonso, Rebecca Gottesman, Hochang Lee, Mercedes Carnethon, Kiang Liu, Kayleen Williams, A. Richey Sharrett, Alexis Frazier-Wood, Constantine Lyketsos, Teresa Seeman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Objective: To describe the methodology utilized to evaluate cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and to present preliminary results by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Design: Cross-sectional measurements of a prospective observational cohort. Setting: Residents of 6 U.S. communities free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-02). Participants: 4,591 adults who completed the fifth MESA clinical examination in 2011-12; mean age 70.3 (SD: 9.5) years, 53.1% women, 40.7% non-Hispanic white, 26.4% non-Hispanic black, 21.4% Hispanic, and 11.5% Chinese. Measurements: The cognitive battery consisted of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (version 2) to evaluate global cognition, the Digit Symbol Code for processing speed and Digit Spans Forward and Backward to assess memory. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural covariates were also collected for descriptive statistics and multivariate modeling. Results: Associations between socioeconomic factors and cognition revealed that age, race/ethnicity, education, occupational status, household income, health insurance type, household size, place of birth, years and generation in U.S., and the presence of the ApoE4 allele were significantly associated with performance on the cognitive tests, although patterns varied by specific test, racial/ethnicity, and sociocultural factors. Conclusion: As many of the influencing cultural and socioeconomic factors measured here are complex, multifactorial, and may not be adequately quantified, caution has been recommended with regard to comparison and interpretation of racial/ethnic group performance differences from these cross-sectional models. These data provide a baseline for future exams and more comprehensive longitudinal analyses of the contributions of subclinical and clinical diseases to cognitive function and decline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)684-697
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2015


  • Cognition
  • MESA
  • Methods
  • Multi-ethnic
  • Race
  • Socioeconomic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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