Sodiation via heterogeneous disproportionation in FeF2 electrodes for sodium-ion batteries

Kai He, Yongning Zhou, Peng Gao, Liping Wang, Nathalie Pereira, Glenn G. Amatucci, Kyung Wan Nam, Xiao Qing Yang, Yimei Zhu, Feng Wang*, Dong Su

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Sodium-ion batteries utilize various electrode materials derived from lithium batteries. However, the different characteristics inherent in sodium may cause unexpected cell reactions and battery performance. Thus, identifying the reactive discrepancy between sodiation and lithiation is essential for fundamental understanding and practical engineering of battery materials. Here we reveal a heterogeneous sodiation mechanism of iron fluoride (FeF2) nanoparticle electrodes by combining in situ/ex situ microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. In contrast to direct one-step conversion reaction with lithium, the sodiation of FeF2 proceeds via a regular conversion on the surface and a disproportionation reaction in the core, generating a composite structure of 1-4 nm ultrafine Fe nanocrystallites (further fused into conductive frameworks) mixed with an unexpected Na3FeF6 phase and a NaF phase in the shell. These findings demonstrate a core-shell reaction mode of the sodiation process and shed light on the mechanistic understanding extended to generic electrode materials for both Li- and Na-ion batteries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7251-7259
Number of pages9
JournalACS nano
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 22 2014


  • disproportionation
  • heterogeneous reaction
  • in situ TEM
  • sodiation
  • sodium-ion battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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