Sodium Cholate Bile Acid-Stabilized Ferumoxytol-Doxorubicin-Lipiodol Emulsion for Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Kijung Kwak, Bo Yu, Samdeep K. Mouli, Andrew C. Larson, Dong Hyun Kim*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To develop bile acid-stabilized multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT)-visible doxorubicin eluting lipiodol emulsion for transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: Ferumoxytol, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved iron oxide nanoparticle visible under MR imaging was electrostatically complexed with doxorubicin (DOX). An amphiphilic bile acid, sodium cholate (SC), was used to form a stable dispersion of ferumoxytol-DOX complex in lipiodol emulsion. Properties of the fabricated emulsion were characterized in various component ratios. Release kinetics of DOX were evaluated for the chemoembolization applications. Finally, in vivo multimodal MR imaging/CT imaging properties and potential therapeutic effects upon intra-arterial (IA) infusion bile acid-stabilized ferumoxytol-DOX-lipiodol emulsion were evaluated in orthotopic McA-Rh7777 HCC rat models. Results: DOX complexed with ferumoxytol through electrostatic interaction. Amphiphilic SC bile acid at the interface between the aqueous ferumoxytol-DOX complexes and lipiodol enabled a sustained DOX release (17.2 ± 1.6% at 24 hours) at an optimized component ratio. In McA Rh7777 rat HCC model, IA-infused emulsion showed a significant contrast around tumor in both T2-weighted MR imaging and CT images (P = .044). Hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue staining confirmed the local deposition of IA-infused SC bile acid-stabilized emulsion in the tumor. The deposited emulsion induced significant increases in TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) stain-positive cancer cell apoptosis compared to those in a group treated with the nonstabilized emulsion. Conclusions: SC bile acid-stabilized ferumoxytol-DOX-lipiodol emulsion demonstrated sustained drug release and multimodal MR imaging/CT imaging capabilities. The new lipiodol-based formulation may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemoembolization in HCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1697-1705.e3
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Volume31
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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