Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface

James J.S. Norton, Dong Sup Lee, Jung Woo Lee, Woosik Lee, Ohjin Kwon, Phillip Won, Sung Young Jung, Huanyu Cheng, Jae Woong Jeong, Abdullah Akce, Stephen Umunna, Ilyoun Na, Yong Ho Kwon, Xiao Qi Wang, Zhuang Jian Liu, Ungyu Paik, Yonggang Huang, Timothy Bretl, Woon Hong Yeo, John A. Rogers* & 1 others Zhenan Bao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

113 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent advances in electrodes for noninvasive recording of electroencephalograms expand opportunities collecting such data for diagnosis of neurological disorders and brain-computer interfaces. Existing technologies, however, cannot be used effectively in continuous, uninterrupted modes for more than a few days due to irritation and irreversible degradation in the electrical and mechanical properties of the skin interface. Here we introduce a soft, foldable collection of electrodes in open, fractal mesh geometries that can mount directly and chronically on the complex surface topology of the auricle and the mastoid, to provide highfidelity and long-term capture of electroencephalograms in ways that avoid any significant thermal, electrical, or mechanical loading of the skin. Experimental and computational studies establish the fundamental aspects of the bending and stretching mechanics that enable this type of intimate integration on the highly irregular and textured surfaces of the auricle. Cell level tests and thermal imaging studies establish the biocompatibility and wearability of such systems, with examples of high-quality measurements over periods of 2 wk with devices that remain mounted throughout daily activities including vigorous exercise, swimming, sleeping, and bathing. Demonstrations include a text speller with a steadystate visually evoked potential-based brain-computer interface and elicitation of an event-related potential (P300 wave).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3920-3925
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume112
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 31 2015

Fingerprint

Systems Integration
Brain-Computer Interfaces
Electroencephalography
Electrodes
Hot Temperature
P300 Event-Related Potentials
Fractals
Skin
Mastoid
Nervous System Diseases
Mechanics
Evoked Potentials
Technology
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Auricle integration
  • Brain-computer interface
  • Soft electronics
  • Text speller

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Norton, James J.S. ; Lee, Dong Sup ; Lee, Jung Woo ; Lee, Woosik ; Kwon, Ohjin ; Won, Phillip ; Jung, Sung Young ; Cheng, Huanyu ; Jeong, Jae Woong ; Akce, Abdullah ; Umunna, Stephen ; Na, Ilyoun ; Kwon, Yong Ho ; Wang, Xiao Qi ; Liu, Zhuang Jian ; Paik, Ungyu ; Huang, Yonggang ; Bretl, Timothy ; Yeo, Woon Hong ; Rogers, John A. ; Bao, Zhenan. / Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 ; Vol. 112, No. 13. pp. 3920-3925.
@article{7408e3f98f514417907be90e114fdc5d,
title = "Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface",
abstract = "Recent advances in electrodes for noninvasive recording of electroencephalograms expand opportunities collecting such data for diagnosis of neurological disorders and brain-computer interfaces. Existing technologies, however, cannot be used effectively in continuous, uninterrupted modes for more than a few days due to irritation and irreversible degradation in the electrical and mechanical properties of the skin interface. Here we introduce a soft, foldable collection of electrodes in open, fractal mesh geometries that can mount directly and chronically on the complex surface topology of the auricle and the mastoid, to provide highfidelity and long-term capture of electroencephalograms in ways that avoid any significant thermal, electrical, or mechanical loading of the skin. Experimental and computational studies establish the fundamental aspects of the bending and stretching mechanics that enable this type of intimate integration on the highly irregular and textured surfaces of the auricle. Cell level tests and thermal imaging studies establish the biocompatibility and wearability of such systems, with examples of high-quality measurements over periods of 2 wk with devices that remain mounted throughout daily activities including vigorous exercise, swimming, sleeping, and bathing. Demonstrations include a text speller with a steadystate visually evoked potential-based brain-computer interface and elicitation of an event-related potential (P300 wave).",
keywords = "Auricle integration, Brain-computer interface, Soft electronics, Text speller",
author = "Norton, {James J.S.} and Lee, {Dong Sup} and Lee, {Jung Woo} and Woosik Lee and Ohjin Kwon and Phillip Won and Jung, {Sung Young} and Huanyu Cheng and Jeong, {Jae Woong} and Abdullah Akce and Stephen Umunna and Ilyoun Na and Kwon, {Yong Ho} and Wang, {Xiao Qi} and Liu, {Zhuang Jian} and Ungyu Paik and Yonggang Huang and Timothy Bretl and Yeo, {Woon Hong} and Rogers, {John A.} and Zhenan Bao",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1424875112",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "112",
pages = "3920--3925",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
number = "13",

}

Norton, JJS, Lee, DS, Lee, JW, Lee, W, Kwon, O, Won, P, Jung, SY, Cheng, H, Jeong, JW, Akce, A, Umunna, S, Na, I, Kwon, YH, Wang, XQ, Liu, ZJ, Paik, U, Huang, Y, Bretl, T, Yeo, WH, Rogers, JA & Bao, Z 2015, 'Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 112, no. 13, pp. 3920-3925. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1424875112

Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface. / Norton, James J.S.; Lee, Dong Sup; Lee, Jung Woo; Lee, Woosik; Kwon, Ohjin; Won, Phillip; Jung, Sung Young; Cheng, Huanyu; Jeong, Jae Woong; Akce, Abdullah; Umunna, Stephen; Na, Ilyoun; Kwon, Yong Ho; Wang, Xiao Qi; Liu, Zhuang Jian; Paik, Ungyu; Huang, Yonggang; Bretl, Timothy; Yeo, Woon Hong; Rogers, John A.; Bao, Zhenan.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 112, No. 13, 31.03.2015, p. 3920-3925.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface

AU - Norton, James J.S.

AU - Lee, Dong Sup

AU - Lee, Jung Woo

AU - Lee, Woosik

AU - Kwon, Ohjin

AU - Won, Phillip

AU - Jung, Sung Young

AU - Cheng, Huanyu

AU - Jeong, Jae Woong

AU - Akce, Abdullah

AU - Umunna, Stephen

AU - Na, Ilyoun

AU - Kwon, Yong Ho

AU - Wang, Xiao Qi

AU - Liu, Zhuang Jian

AU - Paik, Ungyu

AU - Huang, Yonggang

AU - Bretl, Timothy

AU - Yeo, Woon Hong

AU - Rogers, John A.

AU - Bao, Zhenan

PY - 2015/3/31

Y1 - 2015/3/31

N2 - Recent advances in electrodes for noninvasive recording of electroencephalograms expand opportunities collecting such data for diagnosis of neurological disorders and brain-computer interfaces. Existing technologies, however, cannot be used effectively in continuous, uninterrupted modes for more than a few days due to irritation and irreversible degradation in the electrical and mechanical properties of the skin interface. Here we introduce a soft, foldable collection of electrodes in open, fractal mesh geometries that can mount directly and chronically on the complex surface topology of the auricle and the mastoid, to provide highfidelity and long-term capture of electroencephalograms in ways that avoid any significant thermal, electrical, or mechanical loading of the skin. Experimental and computational studies establish the fundamental aspects of the bending and stretching mechanics that enable this type of intimate integration on the highly irregular and textured surfaces of the auricle. Cell level tests and thermal imaging studies establish the biocompatibility and wearability of such systems, with examples of high-quality measurements over periods of 2 wk with devices that remain mounted throughout daily activities including vigorous exercise, swimming, sleeping, and bathing. Demonstrations include a text speller with a steadystate visually evoked potential-based brain-computer interface and elicitation of an event-related potential (P300 wave).

AB - Recent advances in electrodes for noninvasive recording of electroencephalograms expand opportunities collecting such data for diagnosis of neurological disorders and brain-computer interfaces. Existing technologies, however, cannot be used effectively in continuous, uninterrupted modes for more than a few days due to irritation and irreversible degradation in the electrical and mechanical properties of the skin interface. Here we introduce a soft, foldable collection of electrodes in open, fractal mesh geometries that can mount directly and chronically on the complex surface topology of the auricle and the mastoid, to provide highfidelity and long-term capture of electroencephalograms in ways that avoid any significant thermal, electrical, or mechanical loading of the skin. Experimental and computational studies establish the fundamental aspects of the bending and stretching mechanics that enable this type of intimate integration on the highly irregular and textured surfaces of the auricle. Cell level tests and thermal imaging studies establish the biocompatibility and wearability of such systems, with examples of high-quality measurements over periods of 2 wk with devices that remain mounted throughout daily activities including vigorous exercise, swimming, sleeping, and bathing. Demonstrations include a text speller with a steadystate visually evoked potential-based brain-computer interface and elicitation of an event-related potential (P300 wave).

KW - Auricle integration

KW - Brain-computer interface

KW - Soft electronics

KW - Text speller

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84926303082&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84926303082&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1424875112

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1424875112

M3 - Article

VL - 112

SP - 3920

EP - 3925

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 13

ER -