Soft embossing of nanoscale optical and plasmonic structures in glass

Jimin Yao, An Phong Le, Matthew V. Schulmerich, Joana Maria, Tae Woo Lee, Stephen K. Gray, Rohit Bhargava, John A. Rogers, Ralph G. Nuzzo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


We describe here soft nanofabrication methods using spin-on glass (SOG) materials for the fabrication of both bulk materials and replica masters. The precision of soft nanofabrication using SOG is tested using features on size scales ranging from 0.6 nm to 1.0 μm. The performance of the embossed optics is tested quantitatively via replica patterning of new classes of plasmonic crystals formed by soft nanoimprinting of SOG. These crystals are found to offer significant improvements over previously reported plasmonic crystals fabricated using embossed polymeric substrate materials in several ways. The SOG structures are shown to be particularly robust, being stable in organic solvent environments and at high temperatures (∼450 °C), thus extending the capacities and scope of plasmonic crystal applications to sensing in these environments. They also provide a stable, and particularly high-performance, platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. We further illustrate that SOG embossed nanostructures can serve as regenerable masters for the fabrication of plasmonic crystals. Perhaps most significantly, we show how the design rules of plasmonic crystals replicated from a single master can be tuned during the embossing steps of the fabrication process to provide useful modifications of their optical responses. We illustrate how the strongest feature in the transmission spectrum of a plasmonic crystal formed using a single SOG master can be shifted precisely in a SOG replica between 700 and 900 nm for an exemplary design of a full 3D plasmonic crystal by careful manipulation of the process parameters used to fabricate the optical device.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5763-5774
Number of pages12
JournalACS nano
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 26 2011


  • finite-difference time-domain
  • nanostructure
  • organic sensing
  • plasmonic crystal
  • soft lithography
  • surface plasmon resonance
  • surface-enhanced Raman scattering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Soft embossing of nanoscale optical and plasmonic structures in glass'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this