Softening instability: Part II-Localization into ellipsoidal regions

Zdenĕk P. Bažant*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Extending the preceding study of exact solutions for finite-size strain-softening regions in layers and infinite space, exact solution of localization instability is obtained for the localization of strain into an ellipsoidal region in an infinite solid. The solution exploits Eshelby’s theorem for eigenstrains in elliptical inclusions in an infinite elastic solid. The special cases of localization of strain into a spherical region in three dimensions and into a circular region in two dimensions are further solved for finite solids-spheres in 3D and circles in 2D. The solutions show that even if the body is infinite the localization into finite regions of such shapes cannot take place at the start of strain-softening (a state corresponding to the peak of the stress-strain diagram) but at a finite strain-softening slope. If the size of the body relative to the size of the softening region is decreased and the boundary is restrained, homogeneous strain-softening remains stable into a larger strain. The results also can be used as checks for finite element programs for strain-softening. The present solutions determine only stability of equilibration states but not bifurcations of the equilibrium path.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)523-529
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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