Solid-state foaming of Ti-6A1-4V by creep or superplastic expansion of argon-filled pores

Scott Oppenheimer, David C. Dunand*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Ti-6Al-4V foams are produced by the expansion of pressurized argon pores trapped in billets created by powder metallurgy. Pore expansion during thermal cycling (840-1030 °C, which induces transformation superplasticity in Ti-6Al-4V) improves both the foaming rate (by reducing the flow stress) and the final porosity (by delaying fracture of the pores and subsequent escape of the gas), as compared to isothermal pore expansion at 1030 °C, where Ti-6Al-4V creep is the controlling mechanism. Raising the argon content in the billet increases the foaming rates for both creep and superplastic conditions, in general agreement with an analytical model taking into account the non-ideal behavior of high-pressure Ar and the pore size dependence of surface tension. Superplastically foamed Ti-6Al-4V with 52% open porosity exhibits a combination of high strength (170 MPa) and low stiffness (18 GPa), which is useful for bone implant applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4387-4397
Number of pages11
JournalActa Materialia
Issue number13
StatePublished - Aug 2010


  • Cellular materials
  • Creep
  • Porous materials
  • Superplasticity
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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