Soluble, but not transmembrane, TNF-α is required during influenza infection to limit the magnitude of immune responses and the extent of immunopathology

Matthew DeBerge*, Kenneth H. Ely, Richard I. Enelow

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

TNF-α is a pleotropic cytokine that has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions during influenza infection. TNF-α is first expressed as a transmembrane protein that is proteolytically processed to release a soluble form. Transmembrane TNF-α (memTNF-α) and soluble TNF-α (solTNF-α) have been shown to exert distinct tissue-protective or tissue-pathologic effects in several disease models. However, the relative contributions of memTNF-α or solTNF-α in regulating pulmonary immunopathology following influenza infection are unclear. Therefore, we performed intranasal influenza infection in mice exclusively expressing noncleavable memTNF-α or lacking TNF-α entirely and examined the outcomes. We found that solTNF-α, but not memTNFa, was required to limit the size of the immune response and the extent of injury. In the absence of solTNF-α, there was a significant increase in the CD8+ T cell response, including virus-specific CD8+ T cells, which was due in part to an increased resistance to activation-induced cell death. We found that solTNF-α mediates these immunoregulatory effects primarily through TNFR1, because mice deficient in TNFR1, but not TNFR2, exhibited dysregulated immune responses and exacerbated injury similar to that observed in mice lacking solTNF-α.We also found that solTNF-α expression was required early during infection to regulate the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response, indicating that early inflammatory events are critical for the regulation of the effector phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that processing of memTNF-α to release solTNF-α is a critical event regulating the immune response during influenza infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5839-5851
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume192
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2014

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Human Influenza
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
Infection
T-Lymphocytes
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
Wounds and Injuries
Cell Death
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Cytokines
Viruses
Lung
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

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title = "Soluble, but not transmembrane, TNF-α is required during influenza infection to limit the magnitude of immune responses and the extent of immunopathology",
abstract = "TNF-α is a pleotropic cytokine that has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions during influenza infection. TNF-α is first expressed as a transmembrane protein that is proteolytically processed to release a soluble form. Transmembrane TNF-α (memTNF-α) and soluble TNF-α (solTNF-α) have been shown to exert distinct tissue-protective or tissue-pathologic effects in several disease models. However, the relative contributions of memTNF-α or solTNF-α in regulating pulmonary immunopathology following influenza infection are unclear. Therefore, we performed intranasal influenza infection in mice exclusively expressing noncleavable memTNF-α or lacking TNF-α entirely and examined the outcomes. We found that solTNF-α, but not memTNFa, was required to limit the size of the immune response and the extent of injury. In the absence of solTNF-α, there was a significant increase in the CD8+ T cell response, including virus-specific CD8+ T cells, which was due in part to an increased resistance to activation-induced cell death. We found that solTNF-α mediates these immunoregulatory effects primarily through TNFR1, because mice deficient in TNFR1, but not TNFR2, exhibited dysregulated immune responses and exacerbated injury similar to that observed in mice lacking solTNF-α.We also found that solTNF-α expression was required early during infection to regulate the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response, indicating that early inflammatory events are critical for the regulation of the effector phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that processing of memTNF-α to release solTNF-α is a critical event regulating the immune response during influenza infection.",
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Soluble, but not transmembrane, TNF-α is required during influenza infection to limit the magnitude of immune responses and the extent of immunopathology. / DeBerge, Matthew; Ely, Kenneth H.; Enelow, Richard I.

In: Journal of Immunology, Vol. 192, No. 12, 15.06.2014, p. 5839-5851.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Soluble, but not transmembrane, TNF-α is required during influenza infection to limit the magnitude of immune responses and the extent of immunopathology

AU - DeBerge, Matthew

AU - Ely, Kenneth H.

AU - Enelow, Richard I.

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N2 - TNF-α is a pleotropic cytokine that has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions during influenza infection. TNF-α is first expressed as a transmembrane protein that is proteolytically processed to release a soluble form. Transmembrane TNF-α (memTNF-α) and soluble TNF-α (solTNF-α) have been shown to exert distinct tissue-protective or tissue-pathologic effects in several disease models. However, the relative contributions of memTNF-α or solTNF-α in regulating pulmonary immunopathology following influenza infection are unclear. Therefore, we performed intranasal influenza infection in mice exclusively expressing noncleavable memTNF-α or lacking TNF-α entirely and examined the outcomes. We found that solTNF-α, but not memTNFa, was required to limit the size of the immune response and the extent of injury. In the absence of solTNF-α, there was a significant increase in the CD8+ T cell response, including virus-specific CD8+ T cells, which was due in part to an increased resistance to activation-induced cell death. We found that solTNF-α mediates these immunoregulatory effects primarily through TNFR1, because mice deficient in TNFR1, but not TNFR2, exhibited dysregulated immune responses and exacerbated injury similar to that observed in mice lacking solTNF-α.We also found that solTNF-α expression was required early during infection to regulate the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response, indicating that early inflammatory events are critical for the regulation of the effector phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that processing of memTNF-α to release solTNF-α is a critical event regulating the immune response during influenza infection.

AB - TNF-α is a pleotropic cytokine that has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions during influenza infection. TNF-α is first expressed as a transmembrane protein that is proteolytically processed to release a soluble form. Transmembrane TNF-α (memTNF-α) and soluble TNF-α (solTNF-α) have been shown to exert distinct tissue-protective or tissue-pathologic effects in several disease models. However, the relative contributions of memTNF-α or solTNF-α in regulating pulmonary immunopathology following influenza infection are unclear. Therefore, we performed intranasal influenza infection in mice exclusively expressing noncleavable memTNF-α or lacking TNF-α entirely and examined the outcomes. We found that solTNF-α, but not memTNFa, was required to limit the size of the immune response and the extent of injury. In the absence of solTNF-α, there was a significant increase in the CD8+ T cell response, including virus-specific CD8+ T cells, which was due in part to an increased resistance to activation-induced cell death. We found that solTNF-α mediates these immunoregulatory effects primarily through TNFR1, because mice deficient in TNFR1, but not TNFR2, exhibited dysregulated immune responses and exacerbated injury similar to that observed in mice lacking solTNF-α.We also found that solTNF-α expression was required early during infection to regulate the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response, indicating that early inflammatory events are critical for the regulation of the effector phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that processing of memTNF-α to release solTNF-α is a critical event regulating the immune response during influenza infection.

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