Solvent-assisted linker exchange: An alternative to the de novo synthesis of unattainable metal-organic frameworks

Olga Karagiaridi, Wojciech Bury, Joseph E. Mondloch, Joseph T. Hupp*, Omar K. Farha

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

271 Scopus citations


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained considerable attention as hybrid materials - in part because of a multitude of potential useful applications, ranging from gas separation to catalysis and light harvesting. Unfortunately, de novo synthesis of MOFs with desirable function-property combinations is not always reliable and may suffer from vagaries such as formation of undesirable topologies, low solubility of precursors, and loss of functionality of the sensitive network components. The recently discovered synthetic approach coined solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) constitutes a simple to implement strategy for circumventing these setbacks; its use has already led to the generation of a variety of MOF materials previously unobtainable by direct synthesis methods. This Review provides a perspective of the achievements in MOF research that have been made possible with SALE and examines the studies that have facilitated the understanding and broadened the scope of use of this invaluable synthetic tool. Changing pillars: Solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) has gained a lot of attention as a novel synthetic pathway toward metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that are challenging to access de novo. This Review analyzes the recent advances in the application of SALE and provides a critical assessment of the studies that have facilitated our understanding of this invaluable tool for the development of new MOFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4530-4540
Number of pages11
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number18
StatePublished - Apr 25 2014


  • SALE
  • metal-organic frameworks
  • porous materials
  • solid-state structures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)


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