Myocardial ischemia and infarction are known to cause changes in both ventricular shape and function. Little is known about the recovery of ventricular geometry after transient myocardial ischemia and its relationship to recovery of function. To examine the pattern of recovery of ventricular geometry following transient coronary artery occlusion and to assess the relationship of this to the return of systolic function, we used echocardiography to study 13 dogs following 15-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. During ischemia, total endocardial surface area (ESA) increased from 32.55 ± 1.77 to 45.36 ± 3.18 cm2 (p = 0.001). The most striking increase was at the apex, where circumference increased from 5.04 ± 0.24 at baseline to 7.86 ± 0.43 cm at the end of occlusion (p = 0.0001), an increase of 58%. During reperfusion, ventricular geometry rapidly returned toward normal (baseline), with recovery of 80% of the increase in ESA evident by 15 minutes of reperfusion. Recovery of systolic function was substantially slower (p < 0.005 for all periods of observation during the 2 hours of reperfusion). During reperfusion, recovery of ventricular geometry and function was not uniform throughout the ischemic bed. The apex recovered most slowly, with the centroid of the area of abnormal contraction progressively moving along the long axis of the left ventricle toward the apex. There was also a progressive decrease in the radius of the area of dysfunction, from 2.0 ± 0.15 at end occlusion to 0.13 ± 0.07 cm at 120 minutes of reperfusion (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in blood flow between the apical and anterior segments during ischemia or reperfusion. Reperfusion favorably reduced the ischemic zone dilation before recovery of active systolic function and geometric recovery thus may be important in determining ultimate functional recovery. In addition, recovery of function proceeded inward towards the center of the ischemic territory and in a wavefront from the base to apex. This heterogeneous and asymmetric recovery suggests that sampling at one point within the ischemic zone may not reflect the true temporal pattern of recovery.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine