Spatial differences in corneal electroretinogram potentials measured in rat with a contact lens electrode array

Yelena Krakova, Hadi Tajalli, Sanitta Thongpang, Zahra Derafshi, Tamas Ban, Safa Rahmani, Ashley N. Selner, Amani Al-Tarouti, Justin C. Williams, John R. Hetling*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: It has been known for several decades that the magnitude of the corneal electroretinogram (ERG) varies with position on the eye surface, especially in the presence of focal or asymmetric stimuli or retinal lesions. However, this phenomenon has not been well-characterized using simultaneous measurements at multiple locations on the cornea. This work provides the first characterization of spatial differences in the ERG across the rat cornea. Methods: A contact lens electrode array was employed to record ERG potentials at 25 corneal locations simultaneously following brief full-field flash stimuli in normally sighted Long-Evans rats. These multi-electrode electroretinogram (meERG) responses were analyzed for spatial differences in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and implicit times. Results: Spatially distinct ERG potentials could be recorded reliably. Comparing relative amplitudes across the corneal locations suggested a slight non-uniform distribution when using full-field, near-saturating stimuli. Amplitudes of a- and b-waves were approximately 3 % lower in the inferior quadrant than in the superior quadrant of the cornea. Conclusions: The present results comprise the start of the first normative meERG database for rat eyes and provide a basis for comparison of results from eyes with functional deficit. Robust measures of spatial differences in corneal potentials will also support optimization and validation of computational source models of the ERG. To fully utilize the information contained in the meERG data, a detailed understanding of the roles of the many determinants of local corneal potentials will eventually be required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-166
Number of pages16
JournalDocumenta Ophthalmologica
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Electroretinogram
  • Multi-electrode
  • Rat
  • Spatial differences
  • Topography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Physiology (medical)

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